cities of delhi sultanate

However, The Delhi Sultanate reigned India from 1290 to 1526 AD. Mughlai cuisine and the skilled craftsmen can still be seen in the narrow lanes of the city as a reminiscent of the lost times. Qutab Minar, his 72.5-metres-tall Tower of Victory, completed in 1220 AD, stands till today. Yes!! Thanks a lot for reading the article and sharing your comment. Key things: it introduced Islam to India (although harshly) and it fell due to invaders and Timur. wow, it is incredible that you were able to go on those fab train journeys.. Having lived in Delhi all my life, it is incredible to see people discover it’s ancient past as well as the city’s cultural ethos. Please do not copy anything without written permission. Oh wow, India fascinates me and I would love to travel there someday. Street Food Options in Delhi for Mouth-Watering Delicacies! What seemed like a perfect plan on paper was a non-starter. A garrison town is a fortified settlement with soldiers. DELHI SULTANATE The Medieval period dates roughly between 6th A.D and 16th A.D. During this period many dynasties ruled India. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. I was intrigued to find out more. These were Delhi-I Kuhna. 1206, when Muslim invaders (who had been battering away at the northwest since the 900's) captured Delhi. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The Delhi Sultanate may have declined, but it had left a legacy of Muslim control throughout most of India. Delhi was founded in the tenth century, but before the Muslim occupation it was not a large city, ranking below Ajmer in the Chauhan kingdom. Im’ interested in the cauliflower bread you mention-is it a wheat bread + cauliflower recipe or just cauliflower? It was built in a short period of four years (1321-25) as a stronghold against the marauding Mongol attacks. This was indeed a wonderful post! The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate that was existed between the 13th and 16th centuries. Now, with the ... Delhi has a long list of famous tourist places and iconic landmarks. Write a note on the expansion of the Delhi Sultanate. Both the forts were impressive. streets crammed with cars, hawkers, motorcycles, rickshaws and porters. Seven Cities of Delhi – 5 Allauddin Khilji’s Delhi• Alauddin Khilji ( 1296AD) is the next big name in Delhi’s history . Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq had made it mandatory for all the workers in Delhi to be employed in the construction of his fort. Our ancestors knew how to harness this knowledge by coming up with combos like Bedmi & Kachori, samosa and chutni to make the flavours work better together. In every competitive exam, there are 3-4 questions are asked from Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultans built many cities in the area that we now know as Delhi. DELHI SULTANATE, Muslim kingdom ... Uch, and Bhakkar; and Qoá¹­b-al-DÄ«n Aybak in Lahore, Ajmer, and Delhi, the last city being held by his lieutenant Å ams-al-DÄ«n IltutmiÅ¡. Central location : With the expansion of the Delhi Sultanate into the Deccan, Devagiri was centrally located and nearly equidistant from Delhi and other important places. To know more about the UPSC 2021, check the linked article. Remember, I had explored Tughlaqabad fort with you. This can be traced back to the 9th century when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called M… The 6-km long irregular rectangular Fort has two parts – the citadel and palaces on the southern side and the city on the Northern side. Delhi Sultanate emerged for the first time in India as an autonomous Muslim power in the country. Description Main document Muqarnas Volume I: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture ; Associated names. I did follow some of the bloggers who were at the blog train and it seemed like trip these people will never forget. And you took beautiful photos. The transformation of Delhi into a capital that controlled vast areas of the subcontinent started with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in the beginning of the thirteenth century. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The Delhi sultanate was established by Turkish Muslims who ruled for many years from what is now the city of Delhi. Some believe that a few souls continue to linger on earth, even after death while others are staunchly opposed to the whole idea. Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 to 1210 AD) He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori. With a history that spans over a millennium, Delhi now speaks volumes about the ancient Indian period. Travel indeed is a fun way to learn about the history, Great Its really a very Famous Place for tourists there are many type of places like historical religious places famous for foods markets for shopping all are very famous to explore Great information shared by thanks for sharing this. India never ceases to amaze me with its cultural values and valuable history. I would love to try all the types of chilli powder. Ala-ud-din built the first building in the history of India that employed Islamic architecture. The city had a citadel, a royal palace and durbar, many mosques, residences for aristocrats and merchants, and bazaars. Never judge any dish without taking three bites. They had defeated rival armies and seized cities. He died while playing polo in Lahore. For example, people believed that nobles inherited their rights to govern, because they were born in certain families. North West. The city’s remains are spread across South Delhi’s Vasant Kunj, Kishangarh, Mehrauli and Saket areas. My countless trips to Delhi 6 in search of good food has Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in kingdom's storage. According to legend, the city was named for Raja Dhilu, a king who reigned in the region in the 1st century bce.The names by which the city has been known—including Delhi, Dehli, Dilli, and Dhilli, among others—likely are corruptions of his name. Construction. The Food Tour – 14 – 17 dishes, that is a lot, probably te most I have ever heard of being presented in a Food Tour. I am Staying at one of the South Delhi luxury hotels and planning to explore Lotus Temple, Qutub Minar and other historical places in Delhi. The expansion and centralization of the KhaljÄ« sultanate paralleled economic and technological developments of the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The city of Siri built to defend the Delhi sultanate against the Mongols, is also accredited to his name by historians. At 7:30 am, along with my historian guide, Kanika, I walked into the gigantic stone structure, with sandstone walls stretching up to 10-15 metres high. Seven Cities Of Delhi Indraprasth Of Mahabharat• Delhi is an ancient city .It is said that after Rome ,Delhi has the largest number of 500 years old buildings.• The oldest reference to Delhi is in Mahabharat when lord Krishna asks for five villages for Pandavas ie Indrapat, Bagpat,Sonipat , Tilpat & Panipat(Current names). Here’s a perfect travel guide to help you plan the best vacation in the “The City Different” of the United States of America. The Delhi Sultanate Delhi by Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. I spent a few hours strolling through the ruins frozen in time imagining how life would have been when it was abuzz with life. wedding. Hope to see you around. The period was marked by several battles which some developments of new weapons and new military strategies. Having lived in Maharashtra for 7 years, I have been to Daulatabad Fort too on the way to Ellora caves. The ornate Purana Qila was built by Sher Shah in 1540, who razed Humayun’s capital Dinpanah to the ground to do so. The aspects of Hindu architecture, however, were still the foundation for a fresh architectural style. The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic state with its religion as Islam. Delhi Sultanate. Ahh! In every competitive exam, there are 3-4 questions are asked from Delhi Sultanate. The tomb of Iltutmish built in 1235 A.D. is situated just outside the north-west corner of the Quwwat-ul-Islam near the Qutub Minar. Hrishi Desai After Firoze Shah's death, the sultanate became politically unstable and in 1398, the Turk ruler of Samarkand Taimur invaded India - creating havoc in the cities of Delhi, looting, killing and plundering. In the first bite, only salty senses are activated, in the second tangy senses get active and in the last one the chilly hits you. Over time, the rulers built a series of cities in the Delhi area to serve as their capital. Nehru called Delhi the grave of many empires and the nursery of a republic. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Within Sultanate's capital city of Delhi, during Alauddin Khalji's reign, at least half of the population were slaves working as servants, concubines and guards for the Muslim nobles, amirs, court officials and commanders. This was primarily due to three reasons. Please don’t forget to read my detailed posts on my #IndiaBlogTrain journey with Incredible Indiaand The Deccan Odyssey. Surprisingly, the Sultanate was not finished. P.S. Hope to see you around. Each coin was named differently, according to the denominations. Those found violating these mandi rules were severely punished, such as by mutilation. like Bari Manzil, Bikai Mandal, Khirkee Mosque and Chirag-i-Dilli’s Dargah still remain, along with caravanserais, madrasas and canals. Other buildings and constructions, like the mausoleum of Saint Qutubudding Bhaktiyar Kaki, Shamsi Tomb, Jahaz Mahal and tombs of rulers, from the 11. Great photo of the kid on the wall looks like something you’d see in National Geographic. 7 Cities of Delhi 1. Delhi’s glory returned in 1911 when the capital shifted to Delhi and New Delhi was built in and around Raisina Hills, with the Indian parliament, Rastrapathi Bhawan, Connaught Place, the roads, parks and other structures lending it all the majesty, pomp and show any erstwhile ruler would have commanded. Really glad you liked the article. (a) Firstright (b) Primeright (c) Birthright (d) Basicright (c) Birthright. This domed gateway was named the Alai - Darwaza and can still be seen near Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque in the Qutub Complex, Delhi. Thus started the impact of Islamic culture and faith on Delhi for the next six-and-a-half centuries, primarily in architecture. Rediscover the forgotten history of two key cities of the Delhi Sultanate - Tughlaqabad and Shahajanabad - who created new history and food culture. During the Sultanate era an exotic Indo-Muslim culture came into being which was the blend of Arabic, Turkish, Afghan, Persian, Central-Asian and … Besides enjoying your beautiful pictures, I have learned so much in your post today. Since it could not meet the requirements of the large population attracted by the seat of the new government, Iltutmish had to provide it with proper amenities and adorn it as the imperial capital. You are right, Tughlaqabad fort is best enjoyed in winters. My chain of thoughts was broken when Kanika, my historian guide, narrated a legend associated with the Fort. The context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes. The first “dynasty”, the “slave” or Mamluq sultans (only a few of whom were in fact related to each other) were replaced in 1290 by the Khilji dynasty. Quotes []. said Rane, my historian tour guide. 25 of the Perfectly Perfect Cafes in South Delhi for a Great Time! Recorded history puts the first among the 7 cities of Delhi, Qila Rai Pithora in the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan, whose ancestors captured Delhi from Tomar Rajputs in the 10th century. Delhi sultanate, principal Muslim sultanate in north India from the 13th to the 16th century. The seven historical older cities of Delhi stand in mute testimony to the glory of these rulers and the passage of time since. The early Delhi Sultanate and the "seven cities" of Delhi *INDRA- PRASTHA*? The photos draw me to this place especially in the marketplace, I would want to explore the food by myself and finish it! Take a look at Table 1 again and identify the five dynasties that together made the Delhi Sultanate. Its fifth and final dynasty, the Lodi, produced two remarkable rulers, Bahlul (1451-89) and Sikander (1489-1517). Loved reading about the history of Delhi Sultanate and also your culinary trails. 🙂 What a beautiful part of the world! This basically came into existence after Mohammed Ghori captured Delhi after defeating Prithviraj. Got to know more about Delhi by this blog. during a period of terrible battles, invasions, beheadings and death. Really glad you liked it. It must have been a precious experience. The last Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar here but was captured and exiled to Rangoon while his two sons and grandson were killed by the British Captain who caught them. Also, he did not return to the abandoned Tughlakabad as he was convinced it was a cursed city. I knew I would, because anything with the word “history” in it grabs my attention, as I’m a history teacher. The royal Hakim (emperor’s doctor) instructed to kill the effects of unsafe water by consuming food which was very spicy and oily but light on stomach. Two major reasons prompted the sultan to take the decision. He abandoned Tughlaqabad Fort, fearing it was under a curse from Saint Nizamuddin Auliya. In between enjoying the scrumptious Old Delhi chaat, Shikha talked about the debated ‘origin of chaat’. The Turkic slave commanders of the Ghurids established the Delhi Sultanate when the Ghurid empire disintegrated. Daulatabad had water scarcity and the people suffered severely. I love the look of that train too. I was on a seven-day train journey on Deccan Odyssey exploring the offbeat splendour of Maharashtra and Goa. Delhi Sultanate. Loved the history inputs to this, very important because we tend to forget. They were defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the Chauhans. Santa Fe, New Mexico has a lot to offer. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The Chauhan king Prithviraj III was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori in the Second Battle of Tarain, solidifying Muslim presence in northern India and shattering Rajput power in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. But at the same time, the Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya was building a baoli (step-well). Delhi is of course on my list, but I haven’t heard about the Tughlaqabad Fort yet. provide an account of the expansion of Delhi Sultanate under the Mamluk sul-tans describe the expansion of the Sultanate by Khaljis and Tughlaqs outline the challenges faced by the Sultans in consolidating their rule list the causes of the decline of the Sultanate. When Humayun won Delhi back in 1555, he completed Sher Shah’s Qila and ruled from Shergarh till his death in 1556, after a fall from the stairs in Sher Mandal. Seeing the canonization that success had brought to this magnificent thief, other Moslem rulers profited by his example, though none succeeded in bettering his instruction. I have always been captivated by the Indian culture and its great to know the history of Delhi Sultanate. Hope you enjoyed learning about the history of Delhi Sultanate as much as I did exploring it. Second among the 7 historical cities of Delhi, Mehrauli was created by Qutubuddin Aibak. The transfer of the capital from Delhi to Devagiri (renamed Daulatabad) in the Deccan. I love the way you have traced the history literally travelling thousands of kilometres. After he ascended the Delhi Sultanate throne in 1290, he delayed entering the city of Delhi. also the markets and spices look fantastic-this is really a favorite part for me of any travel-getting to see both ancient history and then connecting with a culture through the food and the smells and tastes! With the height of 72.5 metres (238 ft), Qutub Minar is the second tallest monument of Delhi. Happy to Learn Something 🙂. While researching for the story, I walked through time from the fourteenth century Fort city of Tughlaqabad to savouring the spice trail of the 17th century Shahjahanabad. Amir Khusrau|Wikimedia Commons. Delhi Sultanate Quiz will help you in a better understanding of the topic. We really enjoy walking on the streets of Old Delhi. Hi Your article is very interesting. Is it safe to book a holiday package now? This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Learn how your comment data is processed. After Prithviraj was captured, the Delhi Sultanate went into the hands of one of Ghori's generals known as Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Its creation owed much to the campaigns of Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad of Ghūr; brother of Sultan Ghiyāth al-Dīn of Ghūr) and his lieutenant Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak between 1175 and 1206 and particularly to victories at the battles of Taraōrī in 1192 and Chandawar in 1194. Delhi Sultanate Quiz will help you in a better understanding of the topic. Under them, the Sultanate again extended its control over much of northern India. Keep it up your good work. He ruled Delhi from this 6.5 kilometre-long fort until his defeat and death in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 AD, ceding control to the Mamluk/Slave dynasty. DELHI SULTANATE, Muslim kingdom established in northern India by Central Asian Turkish warlords at the turn of the 13th century and continuing in an increasingly persianized milieu until its conquest by Bābor in 932/1526.. i. He was the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Ghulam dynasty (Mamluk Sultanate) of India. The reason to shift was its central location ideal to rule entire India while being safe from the incessant Mongol attacks. Saifuddin served Sultan Iltutmish (r. 1121 – 36 CE) as an officer in the police force in Delhi city. Images used are shot by me. The photos are amazing, and I like that you have included food because that’s one thing we Delhiites love and are proud of. The Turks dominated the population of Delhi at the time. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Displaying the chivalry of Indian history and ancient culture, Delhi is famous for one more happening aspect. It began with the campaigns of MuÊ¿izz al-DÄ«n Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad of GhÅ«r; brother of Sultan Ghiyās̄ al-DÄ«n of GhÅ«r) and his lieutenant Quá¹­b al-DÄ«n Aibak primarily between 1175 and 1206. Based in Delhi, the territory of the Delhi Sultanate was mainly confined to the northern part of India, though at its peak, it was in control of much of the Indian subcontinent. Thanks for sharing. Thank you for sharing about it and happy to learn something new today. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army. Have you been to the twin cities of Delhi or Dualatabad? Almost immediately upon taking Delhi in 1192, the Amir Qutb al-Din Aibak, the commander of the Ghurid sultan's army, demolished some of the existing Hindu and Jain temples and ordered that a major mosque be built. India. the roots of Chaat culture in the Old Delhi founded as Shahjahanabad in 1638. A Turkish tribe from Afghanistan, Khilji rulers followed the Mamluks, with Allauddin Khilji most famous among them. Khusrau’s maternal grandfather, Imad-ul-Mulk, too was a prominent noble who served as the Arzi Mumalik (roughly translated as ‘Defence Minister’) in the Delhi Sultanate under Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban (r. 1266–1287). With every step we take in this city where every other building is replete with historical significance, we can trace India’s journey and the bright and dark times it has experienced through the ages. 16 Haunted Places in Delhi Only For The Daredevils! Enjoyed your photos of the food tour. Building. These cookies do not store any personal information. I would have enjoyed it, food tours are one of my favourite things to do when travelling. A break from city life is always welcome. Terms in this set (5) India was made of little kingdoms and cities until. I would definitely enjoy a food tour like and check out all the fascinating attractions, I love the colors of the local architecture so beautiful and colorful to see. The Delhi Sultanate architecture comprises structures and monuments of Slave, Khilji, Tughlaq, Sayyid and Lodi dynasties constructed 320-year-old in Delhi and its surroundings. Seven-day train journey on Deccan Odyssey exploring the offbeat splendour of Maharashtra and Goa sounds awesome! In 1327, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, decides to shift the capital from Delhi to Devagiri (which he renamed Daulatabad), 1242 kilometres to the south in Aurangabad District. Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India. got to know something new for my bucket list. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The Sultanate collected taxes from the peasantry and dispensed justice in its realm. Your email address will not be published. Hope to see you around. Prithviraj symbolises India’s resistance against Muslim invaders, and is credited with building a complex of twenty seven temples, at the site of Qutab Minar and Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque. You know that I will require your guiding services to show me around India! Rediscover the forgotten history of two key cities of the Delhi Sultanate - Tughlaqabad and Shahajanabad - who created new history and food culture. Going Back in Time: 20 Worthwhile Historical Places in Delhi, 16 Best Amusement Parks in Delhi NCR for a Memorable Weekend. Administration under Delhi Sultanate (UPSC Notes):-Download PDF Here Today’s complex of chic boutiques, Hauz Khas was a large reservoir of the times, though Khilji’s wish to have a tower which supersedes the Qutab Minar didn’t succeed. Thank you for sharing the history, it was interesting to learn more about this region of Delhi. 47 Ladies Night in Delhi for a Rocking Week Ahead! You have shared some interesting facts about both. For years, Tughlaqabad Fort had been at the top of my ‘Places to visit in Delhi’ list, but somehow, I kept missing it. Qutub Minar is a minaret or a victory tower located in Qutub complex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi's Mehrauli area. What we see here is just half part of the Tughalaq jigsaw puzzle. The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate that was existed between the 13th and 16th centuries. Thanks for the information you provided in this post. For the first two centuries of the Sultanate, the area now called Lal Kot in Mehrauli was the centre of the sultans’ rule. Architectural Development during Delhi Sultanate Era Art and architecture which was a combination of Arabic and Indian styles that took a new direction in the Delhi Sultanate period. After unravelling After four hours of immersion in the frenzy of Shahajahanabad’s colours, vivacity and irresistible charm my trip has come to an end but not before I gulped down a Patiala glass of Almond Rose Lassi at Amratsari Lassiwale in Chandi Chowk, old Delhi. Delhi is a true marvel. Great article and excellent photos. Merciless winds of change, weather fury, enemy attacks and unruly encroachment might have killed the city portion but the citadel and the walls of palaces are still intact, silently retelling the stories of the past. India has a lot to offer indeed. After eight years, the Sultan realised his mistake and the capital was again moved back to Delhi. The Rajput Chahamana (Chauhan) kings of Ajmer conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. Thanks for sharing this informative post. Third. Moreover, when I read about travel, culture and history I always feel like packaging and leaving soon again. Standing at an open-air eatery around a small round table, Shikha ordered Bedmi & Kachori (lentils & peas) with potato curry, Nagori halwa (crispy puri made with semolina and paired with semolina sweet), Samosa and Sweet Lassi for us. Gaur served as the Bengali sultanate's capital for over one hundred years until 1565. Interesting – did the curse work or just the threat of the curse? However, it finally happened on a soothing winter morning. hifting the capital to Daulatabad and then shifting back, Mohammed bin Tughlaq. Coins of Delhi Sultanate had introduced a new genre of melioration that set a mark in history. The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu: دہلی سلطنت‬) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).. Finally, I was able to decode the story of the ‘rise and fall of Tughlaqabad’. The administration under the Delhi Sultanate was segregated into various parts- Central, Provincial, Judicial, Local, etc. Muslim. If you are ever in the city, and if not already seen, head out to Mehrauli and its Archaeological Park for another step back in time. India has such a rich culture and history, it makes me want to visit it someday! I loved reading this and learning more about history! I am tempted to have this experience because of the food pics. It was the rulers of Delhi Sultanate that strengthened the base. Everything expressed above is based on my personal experiences during my visit. His tomb is at Hauzkhas lake made by him.• The Siri fort is supposed to have eight thousand severed heads of invading Mongols burried under it by Allauddin. It was the victory against the Rajputs that began the established the reign of the Delhi Sultanate. It’s easy to forget how old the country is and how unique each state and city is. It was in the twelfth century when the Rajput Tomaras made it their capital Delhi emerged on the political map. Privileges claimed on account of birth. When I visit Delhi next year, I’ll for sure drop by here! Until then I didn’t even know a place like Daulatabad existed. They considered him to be an Afghan, and not a Turk, who had overthrown their last sultan, the three-year-old Kayumars of the Slave Dynasty. The story of the Delhi sultanate is so fascinating. Please show some sharing love. 18 Marvellous Places to visit near Delhi within 400 Kilometres. Interesting story. The gold and silver coins issued by the Delhi Sultanate were identical in their inscriptions, metals and designs. Thank you for letting me learn about this amazing corner of the world. This part of Delhi was known as Khandavaprastha. Qutubuddin Aibak was Ghori’s viceroy from 1193 and took over as Delhi’s Sultan in 1206, after Ghori’s death. The Complete List of 12 Amazing Weekend Getaways From Top Cities in India, 8 Famous Museums in Chennai That Give You a Glimpse of the Past, 16 Famous Churches in Delhi You Must Visit, The 20 Best Breakfast Places in Delhi For An Awesome Morning, 10 Sunday Markets in Delhi For The Shopaholic in You, Top Bird Sanctuaries Near Delhi For An Exciting Trip. I try to explore Delhi in that little time, but I realise Delhi deserves much more. : Delhi is often said to be the site of *Indraprastha*, the Pandavas' capital in the Mahabharata; but archaeological evidence is lacking *MAPS* An overview of the rapid rise, constant fluctuations, and steep decline of the Sultanate; and here's a *dynastic chart* and a *map of early Delhi monuments*; and a great *coin site* In this article, we are covering Delhi Sultanate Questions and Answers in Hindi & English from the Slave Dynasty to the Lodhi Dynasty. Visit the Alai Darwaja to see its lotus motifs and a perfect true arch as per Islamic architecture. It began with the campaigns of Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad of Ghūr; brother of Sultan Ghiyās̄ al-Dīn of Ghūr) and his lieutenant Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak primarily between 1175 and 1206.

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