importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture

These factors all modify the plant’s response to salinity, but some are ignored completely (ion specific effects; leaf exposure) in crop and soil models. By Rousseau Tawegoum, Florian Leroy, Gérard Sintes and Gérard Chassériaux, By E. Babatunde Jaiyeoba and Abimbola O. Asojo. Nevertheless, also for these categories of plants lists have been produced for their salt tolerance [20, 21]. Relative saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of ESP for different total salt concentrations in the soil solution (after Ref. Artificial drainage is always needed, except in cases with deep groundwater levels. The use of plastic mulch was compared with the use of traditional practice and crop residue mulching [47]. 3. Root zone drainage water may affect groundwater, and cause fresh water bodies to develop in coastal dunes [34]. In the simplest form, that approach of modelling considers a root zone of which the volumetric water fraction θ depends on infiltration, evapotranspiration, and drainage. © 2017 The Author(s). Practically convincing is it, to show what happens if one does not drain at all. Irrigation is often accompanied by drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Particularly if shallow groundwater is saline, management is needed to avoid capillary rise of this water into the root zone. An impression of the distribution of dry areas is shown in Figure 1, which is based on the aridity index (AI), defined as annual precipitation divided by potential evapotranspiration. Irrigation confers indirect benefits through increased agricultural production. Mulching involves putting a barrier between soil and atmosphere, using different materials such as crop residue, such as straw [41], leaves, paper, old carpet, plastic (Figure 6) or gravel. In addition, induced nutrient deficiency has been well documented, e.g. However, infiltration of rain water is not affected. That requires expertise, excellent communication, and great awareness. What are the factors that affect irrigation requirements? Artificial water supply through irrigation on one occasion and removal of excess water through drainage on the other becomes imperative. 5. Over the two years, the combination of tile and drip-irrigation resulted in an average corn yield increase of 13.8 Bu./A. By its water conserving effect, this transport is reduced. The salt concentration increases, giving a behaviour as is shown in Figure 2. Irrigation maintains moisture in the soil. But if plastic film residue is recycled manually, the cost will become higher, especially in the regions with a labour shortage and efficiency of collecting plastic is low. The basis of this technique is quite simple: drainage, e.g. An impression of the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity due to decreasing salinity of a sodic soil is given in Figure 7 [30]. One study not only reported positive effects of straw mulching on salinity, but also mentioned that many uncertainties still remain [51]. In reality, the effect of sodicity on hydraulic properties is even more complex, as also the retention function is significantly affected. In regions with saline groundwater, and particular in areas where such saline groundwater seeps upward, as in deltas, dynamic drainage can be very useful to diminish the upward saline fluxes. Hence, where D stands for a ‘depth of water layer’, as related to a flux through a designated area (in m3 m−2y−1 or in mm y−1), iw stands for irrigation water, ET for evapotranspiration, and dw for drained water. (8) holds if both groundwater (concentration CZ) and irrigation water (concentration Cirr) carry significant salt quantities, and implies that the mean soil concentration, and the mean leaching concentration, is given by a weighted average concentration of the water fluxes. This is a simplification. This indicates that sodicity is a process to avoid. To manage soil salinity, the Leaching Requirement is an old, yet useful, concept. Salinity is often expressed as concentration (mass per volume of water), electrical conductivity (EC), or total dissolved solids (TDS). Too, water and chemical inputs for urban and recreational irrigation are often far higher than necessary. Therefore, why cementing agents as organic matter are known to detach from the sodic soil’s solid phase and disperse and accumulate at the soil surface. The reason is that crops are often well fertilized, but also that for modelling ion-specific effects, a multicomponent approach is needed as in HP2, UNSATCHEM, and SWAP-ORCHESTRA [15]. DRAINAGE FOR AGRICULTURE discusses the need for drainage in agricultural areas. Dimensioning of drainage for (often flat) fields in agricultural use, is commonly aimed at management of groundwater levels to avoid water logging, poor tractability, structure degradation due to grazing cattle, and water saturated and anaerobic conditions. Irrigation is necessary for the absorption of mineral nutrients by the plants from the soil. For these reasons, sodicity needs to be avoided as much and as early as possible. In the growing season, fresh water is consumed for evapotranspiration, and CAD can lower the saline water table, or perhaps be used to introduce better quality into soil. As was already mentioned, in many climate zones it may be important to save water, for instance because precipitation may occur in a season that is unfavourable for crop production, and primary production in general. Since 1977, such ‘MH’-functions have been adjusted and developed for other crops or for different environmental conditions [9]. These water balance models represent the layer between root zone and groundwater level with a functional dependency of θ and these fluxes. This contribution was made possible through the project WaterNexus that is funded by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW and the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment. It has been well established that also different genotypes of the same species may differ according to their salt tolerance ability [8]. CAD is beneficial to dynamically store water for the dry season. In CAD, the level of drainage can be dynamically varied to improve flexibility with regard to water stored in the soil profile. 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